The term art nouveau is used as its most wide meaning, bearing in it all european vanguard movements, which are designated with analagous term (Jugendstil, modern style, liberty).
Two distinctions will be made: to the English movement of Morris' successors and to the French experiences of Perret and Garnier, which have as a base a specific national tradition.
The character of vanguard culture makes easy a separate explanation of architectural and urbanistic experiences; and these are also the best referencing point to evaluate the relationship between elites and the vernacular production.
The European movement for applied arts renewal is born in Belgium before any other part, between 1892 and 1894, with Horta's Tassel House in Brussels, van de Velde's decoration for his house in Uccle and the first Serrurier-Bovy's furniture designed with original criteria.
Following, some of the main characters of this movement:
Belgium: Victor Horta e Paul Hankar (Architecture). Henry van de Velde e Gustave Serrurier-Bovy (Decoration and Applied Arts).
Scotland: J. Guthire, J. Lavery e E. A. Walton (Painting). G. Walton, C. R. Mackintosh, H. MacNair, the two MacDonald sisters and T. Morris (Decoration).
Austria: Otto Wagner, Joseph Maria Olbrich e Adolf Loos (Architecture).
Spain: Antonio Gaudí (Architecture). Aside Art Nouveau, but surely connected to the innovative spirit.
France: Auguste Perret, Tony Garnier and Viollet le Duc (Architecture).

Viollet le Duc: Decorative bars
(from Entretiens sur l'architecture, 1872)
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