World War I, echoes of vaguard battle being held in Europe also arrive
in Brasil; its most clamorous manifestation is the Semana de Arte Moderna
(Modern Art Week), organized in Sao Paulo, with exhibitions of painting
and sculpture, concerts, recitals and lectures.
As soon as the Revolution of 1930, Lucio Costa is named director of Rio
de Janeiro School of Fine Arts (Escola de Belas Artes). He invites as
teachers of composition G. Warchavchik and A. Budeus. He designs a thorough
renewal of the traditional teaching, but provokes such reactions, that
he is forced in less than one year to resign to his place.
From 1936, opportunities proliferate to modern achitects: Marcelo and
Milton Roberto, A. Correa Lima, Lúcio Costa and Oscar Niemeyer, the last
two design the Brazilian pavillion, built for the New York Exhibition,
Oscar Niemeyer, already worldwide known for the buildings made in Pampulha,
between 1942 and 1943, designs, in 1946, the Boa Vista Bank in Rio, in
1947 the Aeronautic Technical Center in Sao Jose do Campos, from 1951
and forth a set of buildings in Ibirapuera Park, in Sao Paulo, and some
residential buildings in Belo Horizonte, Sao Paulo and Rio.
Juscelino Kubitschek, ellected president in 1955, proposes moving the
capital of the country to a desert territory in hinterland. When the place
for the new city was defined, it was open a international contest of projects.
Lucio Costa' s project is chosen by the jury. A piece of the justification
report of Brasilia project: "It was born from someone's primary gesture
to mark a place or seize it: two axes crossing each other in a right angle,
that is, the cross signal itself."
When designing the buildings for Brasilia, Niemeyer follows the same criteria.
Each one of them is born from an extremely single formal principle, intentionally
Plan of Brasilia